Overview of Stock and Broth timeline and procedure
Introduction – Chicken – Pork – Beef
Glace – Tonkotsu Ramen
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Here I will summarize the timeline and steps for both stock and broth that are universal to Chicken, Pork, and Beef. For the extra steps in Beef, see the beef page; For the differences in Ramen, see the Ramen page. I will assume that you are doing the maximum amount of washes and that you are making a fortified broth. If you are not, then adjust your own method accordingly.
Summary of Standard Method:
All stock ingredients for boiling are placed in 1-2 pots to leave enough room for water to fully boil. Fill with cold water, bring to a boil, and keep on as high of a boil as you can for 24 hours. For Beef Stock the marrow bones needs to be roasted with tomato paste first.
|Chicken feet and meatless bones||Bring to a boil with cover screen||Keep submerged with smaller screen|
Divide the total meat for the broth into two parts, meat with bones and boneless meat. Sear all meat that contains bones in this first round and as much boneless meat as you need for the two batches to be equal. Chop and prep Mirepoix while searing the meat.
Don’t burn the oil! Medium-high heat and be patient.
Deglaze the pan with the mirepoix, add a little salt to sweat the veggies. Stack all the meat in and add cold water to fill once all the fond has been scraped up and melted off the pot.
Bring to a boil and reduce to a simmer, let simmer for 24 hours keeping topped off with fresh water.
For both, keep everything submerged with a false bottom or splatter screen. Keep covered with a splatter screen. Keep topped off with water.
|Searing Chicken||Searing Pork||Searing Beef|
|Fond||Deglaze with Onion and Fond melts||Cooking Mirepoix|
|Add seared meat back in on top of Mirepoix||Top with cold water and simmer 24 hours|
|A layer will form on top that needs to be removed||Skim when layer is thick enough to be scooped||Pull scum to one side, scoop, and toss.|
Give a good stir and make sure nothing is stuck to the bottom of the pot. If the liquid appears really heavy and thick already, with slower larger bubbles breaking the surface rather than lots of little ones you might be ready to do the first wash already. If not, then a good stir and a top-off are all you need to do.
If you are ready to separate the first wash then strain all the pot contents into a colander over a large bowl to let drain. Return all the contents strained back to the pot. If they can all fit in one pot now then great, but likely not until the next day.
If you are down to one pot then:
Top it off with cold water and start the boil process over again in one of the two pots. Put the first wash stock back in the other pot and high simmer to reduce.
If you are still at two pots, most likely on day 2, then:
Reset both pots with the bones etc, top off fully with fresh water and repeat the boil process on both. The first wash stock will not have a burner to sit on so it needs to go in the fridge to hang out overnight. Remove the fat cap the next morning and save in the fridge.
Strain all the contents of the pot and let cool. Strain the first wash broth and place it in a new pot on your 4th burner to a low simmer and reduce.
Separate the meat from the bones and place all the bones from the broth pot into the pot/s with the stock.
Return the meat and veggies to the original pot and top off fully with fresh water and bring back to a boil and immediately drop to a low simmer. This is your second wash.
For both, keep active pots submerged with a false bottom or splatter screen. Keep covered with a splatter screen. Keep topped off with water. Keep first washes simmering or in the fridge to hold.
|Place colander over large bowl or pot||Strain broth solids and reserve broth||Simmer strained broth|
|Move bones to the boiling pot of stock||Return meat and veggies and top with fresh water||Simmer another 24 hours|
If you didn’t do a first wash reset at the last interval, then you need to now. Follow the first wash instructions from the last step. If you have a really unctuous brew of stock then you could do a second wash reset here, after also doing one at the first 24-hour mark. How many times you strain off the stock and reset it with fresh water is up to you. It is just a reduction game in the end and making sure the water you are boiling can still absorb all the goodness from the bones etc.
If making Pork Stock, add the Salt pork to the strained off stock that you either pulled out of your fridge and removed the fat cap from (and saved), the stock you just strained off, or both if you have done two resets already. If not making pork, then proceed to next step.
|Draining and resetting Stock||Straining removed Stock||Reset to boil again||Stock is syrup-like under Fat Cap|
Strain the second wash off, discard all the meat and veggies, and then combine the first and second wash broths to reduce down.
For the fortified broth, you need to sear all the boneless meat, deglaze with the second half of the mirepoix, and return all the meat to the pot. Fill the pot up with the combined broths from the first two days. If you come up short on broth, then top off with fresh cold water. If you have too much broth then set the extra to simmer or keep it in the fridge. Use this extra broth as your top off “water” until it is all incorporated. Add your fresh herbs in this stage after bringing to a boil and reducing down to a simmer.
* If you have refrigerated your stock at all leading up to this point then you can use the fat cap as your cooking fat for searing the second round of meat. This is far superior to adding more oil to the mixture!
At this point, you should be able to reset the stock to have one pot of bones and water boiling and one pot of stock high simmer reducing if you haven’t already.
All the chicken feet should have melted and be indistinguishable by now. All the shaft bones should be easily crushable with your fingers to release the marrow.
Strain off all the bones into an empty pot and pulverize by hand or tool, a potato masher works great.
Combine all washes of stock to reduce in one pot and fill the pot with the pulverized bones about halfway with fresh water and bring to a rolling boil until the end of the 96-hour mark.
At the end of 96 hours, THOROUGHLY strain all bones, grit, and sediment out of your stock. Strain multiple times! Go from coarse to medium, to fine, and then repeat fine a couple of times until nothing is left. Combine this last wash of stock with the simmering stock once fully filtered.
Reduce rendered stock until you can fit in however many vessels it takes to put it in the fridge overnight and still leave room for the broth to rest in the fridge also.
Strain the second round of meat and veggies off, combine any and all broth washes you have and set to simmer.
Return the meat and veggies to the primary pot and top off with fresh water for the final wash.
Simmer this wash until the end of 96 hours and strain off. Discard all solids and strain thoroughly and then combine all washes off broth to simmer and reduce until it can fit in the fridge with the stock and all liquids can rest overnight in the fridge.
|Add herbs in final stages of simmer|
|1st and 2nd wash of Single Broth||Fortified Broth is concentrated and darker||Fortified Broth Vs Pure Stock|
*optional, if you have room to simmer and fridge all liquid then you can do one last baby wash and flash boil with the last round of meat and veggies and the least amount of water it takes to float them to get everything left to release and incorporate into the water. This final wash gets folded into all the other broth washes for the final simmer down and fridge rest overnight. Maximum yield!
If I didn’t say this before, all washes of stock and broth should be well strained before being added to their respective simmering pots so when you get to the end it is all ready to throw in the fridge. If you did not strain and filter for end game along the way then you just need to do your final straining of the whole volume now before putting in the fridge. Doing it incrementally is less work or at least feels like less since it is broken up into smaller tasks instead of one big task. Either way, whether incrementally or lump sum.
YOU MUST STRAIN YOUR STOCK AND BROTH THOROUGHLY BEFORE PUTTING IN THE FRIDGE ON THE END OF THE LAST DAY.
Once the Stock and Broth have been fully processed, strained, and rested in the fridge they need to be taken out and have the fat cap removed. The fat cap on the broth should be fairly low and unless excessive, I would just leave it.
Fat cap on Chicken Stock: Can be used to cook with and sear the second half of meat at the 48 hour mark, but is not something I keep after this process.
Fat cap on Pork: This is fresh Lard and very valuable. I cook with it for the second half of the broth, I make carnitas with it, I pan sear pork chops with it, and you could even do a confit of any pork cut you’d like! See Pork page for notes/rant on Lard.
Fat cap on Beef: This is not advisable to keep. I will use it to sear the second half of meat in the broth process, but that is it.
|Pork Fat Cap on top||Scrape off excess||Fat Cap is Lard, Keep!||Stock should be jello-like and jiggly under the fat.|
|Skim always until the very end.||Beef Fat Cap||Discard Fat Cap|
You can blend your Stock and Broth at a ratio of your choosing, to make Bone Broth or keep them as they are, individually. You can freeze or pressure can your stocks. You cannot water bath can stocks, broth, or soups. If you decide to can them then make sure you follow the recommended guidelines for sanitation, cook time, and storage.
|Setup a pressure canner||Enjoy your stock and broth all year long|